To varying degrees, all organisations are exposed to risks associated with:

  • Technical accounting and reporting requirements
  • Effectiveness of internal audit functions
  • Enterprise risk management programmes
  • Legislative and regulatory non-compliance
  • Fraud and misconduct
  • Commercial disputation and litigation
  • Climate change and other environmental issues
  • Technological change
  • Business continuity.

Given the breadth and complexity of the typical organisational risk profile, it’s increasingly recognised that risk management can’t be the responsibility of a single individual or department — rather it has to be embedded across the organisation ces include: